Cerrado Biome: vegetation with grasses and shrubs.
The word thick It comes from Spanish and means "closed." This word attempts to name a general feature of a dense shrub and grassy vegetation with short, winding trees, which are some of the main features of this biome.
We found the type of vegetation of the Cerrado, mainly in the midwest region of Brazil. It is also found in the regions of the state of Tocantins, western Minas Gerais, southern Maranhão, southern Piaui and some areas of western Sao Paulo.
The Cerrado is a typical vegetation of places with climatic seasons defined in very rainy and dry seasons, and of regions of sandy composition soil.
Main characteristics of the Cerrado:
- Presence of trees of crooked and small branches.
- Deep shrub roots (to fetch water at greater depths).
- Hard and thick tree barks.
- Leaves covered with trichomes (species of hair).
- Presence of grass and cyperaceae on the tree platform.
- Reddish soil.
Aspects of Cerrado Flora
The Cerrado flora is very rich, consisting of about 3,000 species, 1,000 of them from the tree-shrub stratum and 2,000 from the herbaceous-understory.
The Cerrado flora has a heterogeneity of distribution, with species more characteristic of the Cerrados of the northern region, others of the Midwest region, of the southeast region, among other regions.
Only the flora of the Amazon Rainforest and forests of the Atlantic Forest surpass that of the Cerrado.
Key aspects of fauna
The Cerrado is the habitat of large numbers of animal species. Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish are among some 2,500 identified vertebrate species.
Not to mention insects, which also play a very important role in ecology, but are still little known.
There are species that only have in the Cerrado biome, such as the giant anteater, which are on the list of threatened Brazilian animals. There are around 65 species of the Cerrado that are threatened.
And there are also endangered species, such as the jaguar, the armadillo canasta, the maned wolf, the gray eagle and the bush dog, among others.
The climate of the Cerrado is seasonal Tropical, with a dry winter (low rainfall and low humidity). The average annual temperature is around 23ºC. The maximums, over the months, can reach around 40ºC.
Strong and constant winds are not a common quality of the Cerrado. The atmosphere is usually calm and the air is almost still.
The solar radiation of the Cerrado is very intense most of the time (UV between 8 and 10) and may be reduced due to high cloudiness in the excessively rainy summer months.
Since the dry winter and almost cloudless latitudes are relatively small, the solar radiation at this time is also very intense, leaving the midday hours well warmed.
In August-September the intensity of the heat may be reduced slightly, due to the dry mist resulting from fires and vegetation burns, very common at this time of year.
The Cerrado has a population of traces of farming families, traditional communities such as quilombolas, gerizeiros, babassu coconut breakers and indigenous peoples.
Groupings of people of deep wisdom and respect for the environment, with significant community sense.
In addition to urban populations that make up a rich mosaic of as many traits coming from diverse origins. The Cerrado is home to around 220 indigenous lands and 80 different ethnicities.
The other traditional communities do not have any legal instrument for recognizing their collective ownership of the land.
Curiosities about the Cerrado Biome
- The Cerrado has the second largest group of living beings in Brazil, just behind the Amazon rainforest;
- Only 2% of the original form of the Cerrado is preserved in parks and reserves;
- Around 1550 species of animals are known so far (mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and birds);
- The ipê flower, which is very common in the cerrado area, was declared a Brazilian national flower by a decree from the presidency of the republic.