Biotechnology: Science and Nature
What is (definition)
Biotechnology has been developed by humans for millennia, around eight to ten millennia at least, since since its inception humans have been looking for ways to use nature to their advantage.
It will seek to shape the organism to make it more practical for human use. An example of this is the crossing of two ears of corn - of pure lineage - to make a new type better suited to the human jaw and with shorter cooking time.
Early Evidence of the Use of Biotechnology
The fermentation technique using fungi and bacteria for the production of alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine was already produced by Sumerians and Babylonians 6000 BC. And bakery and fermented beverages were already used by the Egyptians and Greeks 2000 BC.
Other important biotechnological process events
- Industrial fermentation (1880-1910) - lactic acid, ethanol and vinegar;
- Synthesis of glycerol, acetone and citric acid (1910-1940) - production by microorganisms;
- Antibiotics (1940 - 1950) - produced on a large scale by fermentative processes;
- Development of monoclonal antibodies (1955) - which is the development of antibodies by cloning;
- Production of human insulin by genetic engineering (1982);
- First use of gene therapy (1990);
- Cloning of the Dolly sheep (1996);
- Human Genome Project (2000-2003).
It is known that human evolution, mainly as a society, is related to the discovery and use of biotechnological processes.